Green Card for a Widow(er) of a U.S. Citizen
Widows or widowers who were married to U.S. citizens at the time of the citizen’s death may apply for a green card.
Until October 28, 2009, you had to have been married to the deceased citizen for at least two years at the time of the deceased citizen’s death, in order to immigrate as the widow(er) of a citizen. Congress removed this requirement, effective October 28, 2009.
To immigrate as the widow(er) of a citizen, you must prove that you were legally married to the citizen, and that you entered the marriage in good faith, and not solely to obtain an immigration benefit.
Widow(er) With Pending or Approved Immigrant Petition
If you were married to a U.S. citizen who had filed Form I-130, Petition for Alien Relative for you before he or she died, you do not need to file anything. The Form I-130 will be automatically converted to a Form I-360, Petition for Amerasian, Widow(er), or Special Immigrant. If you have children (unmarried and under age 21), they may be included on the Form I-360 regardless of whether your deceased spouse had filed a petition for them.
To qualify, you must not have have been divorced or legally separated from the U.S. citizen at the time of death. Your eligibility to immigrate as a widow(er) ends if you have remarried.
Widow(er) Without a Pending or Approved Immigrant Petition
If you were married to U.S. citizen before the citizen’s death, but had no I-130 petition filed on your behalf, you can self-petition as an “immediate relative” on Form I-360, Petition for Amerasian, Widow(er), or Special Immigrant.
To qualify, you must not have been divorced or legally separated from the U.S. citizen at the time of death. Your eligibility to immigrate as a widow(er) ends if you have remarried. You must file within 2 years of the citizen’s death.
If your citizen spouse did not have a Form I-130 pending at the time of death, you must file the Form I-360 no more than 2 years after the death of your citizen spouse.
If, however, you were married less than 2 years, and your citizen spouse died before October 28, 2009, you must file your Form I-360 no later than October 28, 2011.
Widow(er) of a U.S. Military Member
For surviving spouses of deceased U.S. military members who were killed in combat, there are separate immigration benefits under section 1703 of Public Law 108-136. Individuals in these categories may self-petition for “immediate relative” status on Form I-360.
You may be eligible to receive a green card through widow/widower status if you:
To obtain a green card, you need to file Form I-360, Petition for Amerasian, Widow(er), or Special Immigrant, with all required documents as listed in the form instructions. If your spouse filed Form I-130, Petition for Alien Relative, before his or her death, we will consider the petition as if you had filed an I-360.
If You Live in the United States
You may file Form I-485, Application to Register Permanent Residence or Adjust Status, either at the same time you file your Form I-360 or after you file the Form I-360 whether it is pending or approved. If you already filed Form I-485 based on the petition filed by your spouse, USCIS will continue to process this application and you do not need to file another one.
If You Live Outside of the United States
Your approved petition will be forwarded overseas to the U.S. embassy or consulate that has jurisdiction over where you live.
Supporting Evidence for the Form I-485
You should submit the following evidence/documentation with your application:
You will need to undergo a medical exam to be eligible for adjustment as an immediate relative.
Children of Widow(er) of a U.S. Citizen
Your unmarried children under the age of 21 (known as “derivatives”) may be included on your immigration petition.
As “immediate relatives,” your derivative children are granted benefits of the Child Status Protection Act, which “freezes” their ages as of the date of the principal’s filing of Form I-130 or I-360, whichever is applicable. This provision prevents them from aging-out if they turn 21 prior to adjudication of their adjustment-of-status or visa application. They must, however, continue to meet any other additional filing requirements.
Work & Travel Authorization
Generally, when you have a pending Form I-485, it is possible for you to apply for authorization to work in the United States and to seek advance parole (advance permission to travel and be admitted to the United States upon your return).
Source: United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)